New research has found that gastric bypass surgery induces changes in the gut microbiota and peptide release that are similar to those seen after treatment with prebiotics.
Previous research has shown that ingestion of a high-fat diet results in an abundance of Firmicutes and a decrease in Bifidobacteria spp and Bacteroidetes. Feeding of prebiotics changes the composition and/or the activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota and promotes the release of gut peptides.
After roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery has been performed there has been shown to be substantial shifts in the composition of the gut microbiota towards lower concentrations of Firmicutes and increased Bacteroidetes in obese subjects.
Because this surgery could affect how nutrients are absorbed in different portions of the intestine, researchers from the University of Zurich set out to measure the
bacterial composition and the amounts of different peptides that affect food intake along different intestinal segments after RYGB.
They found that 14 weeks after the surgery, Bifidobacteria spp, and Bacteroides-Prevotella spp content were significantly increased in several portions of the intestine in those who had the surgery over the control group.
The lead author on this study, Melania Osto, Ph.D. said “Our findings show that RYGB surgery leads to changes in gut microbiota that resemble those seen after treatment with prebiotics. The results of this study suggest that postsurgical gut microbiota modulations may influence gut peptide release and significantly contribute to the beneficial metabolic effects of RYGB surgery.”